Explore Maslow's hierarchy of needs and its impact on motivation, personal growth, and organizational success. Unlock human potential.
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Maslow's hierarchy of needs stands as a cornerstone theory that elucidates the progression of human motivation. At a basic level, this theory posits that human beings have a set of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy, symbolically represented by a pyramid.
The foundational layer of the pyramid addresses our most fundamental physiological requirements—these are the basic human needs like food, water, and sleep. It is at this proximate level where the self-protective goal is paramount, aligning with evolutionary psychology that recognizes the urgency of survival and reproductive goals.
As one ascends the hierarchy needs of Maslow, each tier represents a developmental level with corresponding needs. Following the satisfaction of basic necessities, safety needs emerge, followed by social motives—our intrinsic desire for belonging and affection. Esteem needs, the penultimate tier, speak to our need for recognition and self-respect.
At the pinnacle lies self-actualisation needs, which is the drive to realize one's fullest potential, a concept that Maslow later expanded with a sixth level to encompass transcendent experiences.
This hierarchical approach provides a framework for understanding the myriad of factors that motivate behavior, casting hierarchy in light of both personal growth and the broader spectrum of evolutionary approach. In subsequent sections of this article, we will delve into the historical context and the multifaceted implications of Maslow's hierarchy of motives, exploring how they resonate within educational settings and beyond.
The pyramid of need Maslow created is less about climbing to the top and more about the journey of becoming.
The three key takeaways from this introduction are:
- The hierarchy needs by Maslow is a foundational theory in psychology that categorizes human needs into a progressive framework.
- It starts from basic physiological needs and moves through safety, belonging, esteem, to the self-actualisation needs at the top, with a potential sixth level for transcendence.
- This theory is integral for educators and students in understanding human motivation and behavior from both a developmental and an evolutionary perspective.
Who was Abraham Maslow?
Abraham H. Maslow was a towering figure in human psychology. Maslow’s journey in psychology began with a focus on human desires, diverging from the then-dominant models of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. He championed a more positive view of human nature, emphasizing growth, potential, and psychological health.
Maslow’s work in motivational theory, rooted in the concept of self-actualization, marked a transformative shift in the field of psychology. His theory diverged from the traditional pathologizing perspective, advocating instead for a focus on the positive aspects of human nature. This humanistic approach provided a fresh lens to view human behavior, centering on intrinsic growth and fulfillment.
A notable aspect of Maslow's career was his development of psychotherapeutic techniques. His approach to therapy was innovative, focusing not just on alleviating suffering, but on helping individuals achieve personal growth and fulfillment. This was in line with his broader philosophical stance that emphasized the importance of striving for self-actualization as a central human motive.
Maslow’s impact reached beyond the academic sphere. He influenced cultural icons such as Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt, reflecting his belief in the universal applicability of his ideas. His theories resonated across various disciplines, including evolutionary psychology, where his insights on social motives and the self-protective goal found new interpretations.
He also made significant contributions to academic literature, notably in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. His writings often integrated concepts such as cognitive priority and developmental priority, underscoring the interconnectedness of various aspects of human psychology.
In essence, Abraham H. Maslow redefined the landscape of psychology, moving it towards a more comprehensive and human-centered approach. His work continues to inspire and influence not only psychologists but also individuals in diverse fields, from education to management, drawing parallels with the ideals of figures like Abraham Lincoln. His legacy, therefore, extends far beyond the confines of his hierarchy theory, cementing his status as a pivotal figure in the annals of human psychology.
The Original Hierarchy of Needs
The Original Hierarchy of Needs, developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, is a theory that seeks to explain human motivation and the factors that drive individuals to fulfill their needs. Maslow proposed a five-level pyramid structure that presents hierarchical needs in an order of importance.
This theory suggests that individuals must first satisfy their basic physiological needs, such as food, water, and shelter, before progressing to higher-level needs such as safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
The Original Hierarchy of Needs provides a framework for understanding human behavior and offers insights into the fundamental needs that shape individuals' actions and aspirations. This theory has significantly influenced various fields like psychology, sociology, and business, facilitating a better understanding of human motivation and the factors that contribute to personal growth and well-being.
Physiological needs are the basic requirements for survival and maintenance of the human body. According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, physiological needs form the foundation of the hierarchy, indicating their crucial significance in fulfilling higher-level needs. These needs must be met before an individual can progress to fulfilling emotional, social, or self-actualization needs.
The essential elements that constitute physiological needs include shelter, water, food, warmth, rest, and health. Shelter provides protection against the elements and ensures a safe environment. Water and food are necessary for sustenance and replenishment of nutrients, enabling the body to function properly. Adequate warmth is required for optimal body temperature regulation. Sufficient rest allows for rejuvenation and recovery, promoting overall well-being. Lastly, good health ensures the body's ability to meet other needs and pursue higher-level goals.
Without the fulfillment of physiological needs, an individual's attention becomes fixated on obtaining these basic necessities, hindering personal growth and development. Hence, satisfying physiological needs is crucial for achieving higher levels of self-actualization and fulfillment. Maslow's hierarchy of needs emphasizes that until these fundamental requirements are met, individuals are unlikely to focus on building relationships, pursuing self-esteem, or experiencing personal growth.
In conclusion, physiological needs are the foundation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and include shelter, water, food, warmth, rest, and health. Meeting these needs is essential for maintaining physical well-being and creating a solid base for higher-level needs.
Safety and Security Needs
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, safety and security needs are placed at the second level, just above physiological needs. They are essential for individuals to feel a sense of order, predictability, and control in their lives.
Safety needs include the basic elements required for physical and emotional well-being. For example, living or working in a safe environment is crucial as it provides individuals with a sense of security and protection. This can involve having sturdy locks on doors and windows, a reliable alarm system, or living in a neighborhood with low crime rates. By ensuring the physical safety of their surroundings, individuals can focus on other aspects of their lives without constant worry or fear.
Having a stable source of income is another example of a safety need. Economic stability provides individuals with a sense of predictability and control over their financial situation. It allows them to meet their basic needs, access healthcare, and have a certain level of comfort and security. Without stable income, individuals may feel anxious, vulnerable, and unable to meet their needs, which can lead to stress and a lower quality of life.
Feeling protected from crime or abuse is also an important safety need. This includes physical safety as well as emotional security. Knowing that one is safe from violence, harassment, and exploitation allows individuals to feel a sense of control over their personal boundaries and well-being.
Safety and security needs are crucial in Maslow's hierarchy as they provide individuals with order, predictability, and control. Examples of safety needs include living or working in a safe environment, having a stable source of income, and feeling protected from crime or abuse. Fulfilling these needs ensures that individuals can focus on higher levels of self-actualization and personal growth.
Love and Belongingness Needs
Love and belongingness needs are fundamental aspects of human well-being. These needs refer to the innate desire to be connected with others, to have meaningful relationships, and to be a part of a social group. When these needs are met, individuals experience a sense of belonging, acceptance, and love, which significantly contributes to their overall well-being.
Having social connections and a sense of belonging has a profound impact on mental health. It provides emotional support, reduces feelings of loneliness and isolation, and enhances self-esteem and self-worth. Strong social connections have been linked to higher levels of happiness, life satisfaction, and overall psychological well-being. On the other hand, when these belongingness needs are unmet, individuals are at risk of experiencing negative consequences.
The negative consequences of unmet belonging needs can be severe. Loneliness and social isolation have been associated with a variety of detrimental effects on mental and physical health. These include increased risk of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive decline. Studies have shown that individuals lacking social connections have higher mortality rates and poorer physical health outcomes compared to those with strong social support systems.
Research has highlighted the link between love and belonging needs and physical health. Studies have observed that individuals with higher levels of social support tend to have better cardiovascular health, stronger immune function, and faster recovery from illnesses. Additionally, having loving and supportive relationships has been found to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity.
Social connections and a sense of belonging have a significant impact on mental health, and unmet belonging needs can lead to serious negative consequences. Research consistently demonstrates the importance of love and belongingness needs on physical health, emphasizing the need for nurturing and maintaining meaningful relationships and social connections to enhance overall well-being.
Esteem needs, as explained in the Background Information, are a fundamental aspect of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Esteem needs refer to the desire for a sense of self-worth and the need for the acknowledgment, respect, and recognition of others.
Within esteem needs, there are two subcategories: self-esteem and respect. Self-esteem is the internal evaluation and perception of one's own worth and value. It relates to a person's sense of competency, dignity, and independence. When individuals have good self-esteem, they have a positive self-image and feel confident in their abilities.
Respect, on the other hand, is the external evaluation and recognition of an individual's worth and value by others. This aspect of esteem needs encompasses the desire for acknowledgment, acceptance, and appreciation from others. It involves being valued for one's contributions, achievements, and unique qualities.
Several factors contribute to the development of good self-esteem. These include positive experiences, relationships, and accomplishments that build confidence and a sense of self-worth. A supportive environment, encouragement, and validation from others also play a crucial role in fostering healthy self-esteem.
Different aspects of esteem can be gained from others, such as status and prestige. These aspects refer to the recognition and respect received from others based on one's achievements, positions, or societal roles. The fulfillment of esteem needs is essential for individuals to feel valued, confident, and respected within themselves and by others.
Self-actualization is a significant component in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which outlines the human drive for personal growth and fulfillment. Positioned at the peak of his pyramid, self-actualization represents the highest level of motivation and reflects an individual's aspiration to realize their fullest potential.
The concept of self-actualization centers around the idea that individuals have an innate desire to become the best versions of themselves. This need is characterized by the pursuit of personal growth, self-discovery, and the active exploration of one's talents, interests, and values. Unlike the lower needs in Maslow's hierarchy, such as physiological or safety needs, self-actualization is more abstract and subjective.
Self-actualization differs for each person because it is dependent on their unique set of experiences, skills, and aspirations. For one individual, self-actualization may involve pursuing a career that aligns with their passion, whereas for another, it may be about creating meaningful relationships or engaging in artistic expression. What constitutes self-actualization varies greatly from person to person, highlighting the importance of individual differences.
The manifestation of self-actualization can be observed through various behaviors and characteristics. It can be seen when individuals display creativity, authenticity, resilience, and a strong sense of purpose. For example, a person who always aspires to learn new things, challenges themselves, and constantly seeks personal growth, can be said to be self-actualizing.
However, self-actualization is a rare state according to Maslow. He believed that only a small percentage of individuals truly reach this level of development, as many people become preoccupied with fulfilling their lower-order needs and are hindered by societal expectations and limitations.
Modifications to the Hierarchy of Needs
The Hierarchy of Needs is a psychological theory proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943, which outlines the different needs that individuals strive to fulfill in order to achieve self-actualization. However, over the years, several modifications and adaptations have been made to Maslow’s original model to account for the changing dynamics and complexities of human behavior.
Recognizing the variability of individual experiences and cultural influences, these modifications have sought to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human motivation and the factors that contribute to personal growth and fulfillment. This article will explore some of the key modifications to the Hierarchy of Needs and the implications they hold for our understanding of human motivation and well-being.
Criticism and Limitations to Maslow's Theory
Maslow's theory of needs hierarchy has received several criticisms and limitations. Firstly, there is a lack of empirical evidence to support the concept of the needs hierarchy. Maslow's theory is based on his own observations and subjective judgments, rather than on rigorous scientific research. The needs hierarchy suggests that lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be pursued, but this claim has not been consistently supported by empirical studies.
Secondly, the concept of self-actualization, a central component of Maslow's theory, is difficult to test and quantify. It is a subjective and abstract construct, making it challenging to measure and study empirically. This lack of testability hinders the scientific validity and credibility of the theory.
Furthermore, there are concerns about the misattributed or lost original concept of Maslow's research. Over time, the needs hierarchy has been simplified and reduced to a pyramid diagram, which may not accurately represent the complexity and nuances of Maslow's original ideas. This oversimplification might lead to misinterpretations or misunderstandings of the theory.
Additionally, Maslow's hierarchy is biased towards Western societies and may not be applicable to collectivist cultures. The theory assumes that individual needs and self-actualization are the primary drivers of human behavior, ignoring the importance of collective needs and social relationships in collectivist cultures. The emphasis on individualistic values may limit the applicability and cultural relevance of the theory in non-Western contexts.
To summarise, various criticisms and limitations exist regarding Maslow's theory. These include the lack of empirical evidence for the needs hierarchy, difficulties in testing the concept of self-actualization, and the misattributed or lost original concept of his research.
Moreover, the theory is biased towards Western societies and may not fully apply to collectivist cultures. Despite its popularity, it is essential to acknowledge and consider these limitations when evaluating and applying Maslow's theory.
Maslow in the Workplace: Enhancing Employee Motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs that explains the different levels of human needs and their impact on motivation. This theory can be successfully applied in the workplace to enhance employee motivation and productivity.
1. Meet Basic Physiological Needs:
Provide a fair and competitive salary to cover employees' basic living costs.
Offer health benefits and wellness programs to ensure physical well-being.
2. Ensure Safety and Security:
Create a safe work environment free from hazards.
Implement job security measures to alleviate anxiety about future employment.
Develop clear policies and procedures that promote a sense of stability.
3. Foster Social Belonging:
Encourage teamwork and collaboration through group projects and team-building exercises.
Create spaces for social interaction, such as break rooms or social events.
4. Boost Self-esteem:
Recognize and celebrate employee achievements publicly.
Provide constructive feedback and opportunities for professional development.
Assign responsibilities that allow employees to feel competent and valued.
5. Encourage Self-actualization:
Offer challenging and meaningful work that encourages creativity and problem-solving.
Support continuous learning and career advancement.
Give employees autonomy to pursue projects they are passionate about.
6. Promote Work-life Balance:
Implement flexible working hours and remote work options.
Respect personal time off and encourage use of vacation time for rest and recovery.
7. Cultivate a Culture of Respect:
Treat every employee with dignity and respect, regardless of their position.
Encourage open communication and transparency within the company.
8. Develop Leadership and Management:
Train managers to recognize and address the needs of their team members.
Promote leaders who demonstrate empathy and support for their employees' growth.
9. Engage in Community and Social Responsibility:
Involve employees in charitable activities or corporate social responsibility projects.
Foster a sense of purpose by connecting work outputs to wider community benefits.
By integrating these actionable ideas, workplaces can align with Maslow's hierarchy of needs, leading to enhanced motivation and increased output from employees.
Impact of Maslow's Theory on Psychology Fields
Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation, proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943, has had a profound impact on various psychology fields. This influential theory is based on the idea that human beings have a hierarchy of needs that must be fulfilled in order to achieve self-actualization.
Maslow's theory has revolutionized the understanding of motivation, personality development, and human behavior, leading to significant advancements in areas such as humanistic psychology, organizational psychology, and positive psychology.
1. Humanistic Psychology:
Maslow's theory has had a significant impact on the field of humanistic psychology. This approach emphasizes the importance of understanding and promoting human potential, self-actualization, and personal growth.
By highlighting the importance of fulfilling basic physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs, Maslow's theory has provided a framework for psychologists to focus on the positive aspects of human experience, well-being, and self-actualization. Humanistic psychologists use Maslow's hierarchy of needs as a tool to understand and guide individuals towards self-fulfillment and leading meaningful lives.
Humanistic psychology is a paradigm in psychology that emerged in the mid-20th century, with a focus on understanding and celebrating the positive aspects of human behavior. It is characterized by several distinguishing features.
Firstly, humanistic psychology places an emphasis on the positive side of behavior, believing in the inherent goodness and potentials of individuals. Unlike other branches of psychology that predominantly focus on psychopathology and abnormal behavior, humanistic psychology highlights the positive attributes, such as personal growth, self-actualization, and self-improvement.
Secondly, this approach recognizes the uniqueness of human traits compared to animals like rats. It acknowledges that humans possess higher cognitive abilities, self-awareness, and the capacity for conscious decision-making, which differentiates them from other creatures. Humanistic psychology views humans as complex beings driven by internal motivations, desires, and values.
Thirdly, humanistic psychology values the understanding of both positive and negative aspects of human behavior. While it emphasizes personal growth and self-actualization, it also recognizes that individuals face struggles, challenges, and negative experiences. By acknowledging the complete spectrum of human experiences, humanistic psychologists aim to foster empathy, compassion, and acceptance.
2. Organizational Psychology:
In the field of organizational psychology, Maslow's theory has had a significant impact on theories of motivation and employee satisfaction. This theory suggests that fulfilling higher-level needs, such as the need for self-esteem and self-actualization, can enhance job satisfaction and employee motivation.
As a result, organizations have used Maslow's theory to design work environments that provide opportunities for personal growth and development, foster a sense of belongingness and esteem, and ultimately cultivate a motivated and satisfied workforce.
3. Positive Psychology:
The impact of Maslow's theory is also evident in the field of positive psychology, which focuses on understanding and promoting the factors that contribute to human well-being and flourishing. By highlighting self-actualization and the fulfillment of higher-level needs, Maslow's theory aligns with the central goals of positive psychology.
This theory has provided a foundation for studying subjective well-being, positive emotions, personal strengths, and optimal human functioning, contributing to a greater understanding of happiness, resilience, and overall psychological well-being.
Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation has left a lasting impact on various psychology fields. By providing a framework for understanding human needs and motivations, this theory has advanced the fields of humanistic psychology, organizational psychology, and positive psychology.
The exploration of these fields continues to bring valuable insights into human behavior, motivation, and well-being, ultimately improving our understanding of what it means to live a fulfilling and meaningful life.
4. Developmental Psychology
Within the realm of developmental psychology, the growth and maturation of individuals is akin to a journey on a motorcycle, with various terrains representing the myriad stages of human life. This scientific field meticulously dissects the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth that occurs from infancy to old age, revealing a complex interplay of change and continuity.
Central to this is the understanding of developmental stages. Maslow's hierarchy of needs intersects with this narrative, proposing that human desires evolve in a step-like fashion. The idea of a developmental hierarchy echoes the essence of Maslow's framework, which also suggests a sequence of needs from the physiological to the self-actualizing.
The connection between Maslow's theory and developmental psychology is vividly illustrated when one considers the work of luminaries like Jean Piaget, whose stages of cognitive development resonate with Maslow's idea of sequential growth.
Vygotsky's social development theory and Bruner's constructivist theory further complement this, highlighting the scaffolding that supports the ascent of Maslow's pyramid. Each stage of cognitive development, from Piaget's sensorimotor stage to the formal operational stage, could be seen as parallel to ascending Maslow's hierarchy, satisfying and then transcending one level of needs to reach another.
In the canvas of developmental stages—pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive—we see the shadows of Maslow's physiological, belonging, and esteem needs. The pre-reproductive phase, with its emphasis on learning and skill acquisition, mirrors Maslow's safety and belonging stages, where the environment is explored and mastered.
The reproductive stage, focused on mate selection and offspring rearing, speaks to Maslow's love and esteem needs, aiming for relationship building and social recognition. The post-reproductive stage aligns with Maslow's self-actualization, as individuals seek generativity and the impartation of wisdom to succeeding generations.
Developmental psychology, through its lens on individual differences, underscores that this journey is not uniform. It acknowledges the variations in the rate of development and the personal traits that influence motivational drives, akin to how Maslow recognized the individual uniqueness in ascending the hierarchy. This holistic view, considering the personal and the universal, provides a multidimensional understanding of human development that both complements and expands Maslow's motivational theory.
5. Positive Psychology
Positive Psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the positive aspects of human behavior, emotions, and thoughts. It aims to understand and promote factors that contribute to a fulfilling and meaningful life. In relation to the background information provided, Positive Psychology is significant because it serves as a counterbalance to the traditional focus on pathologies and disorders in psychology.
Positive Psychology aligns with Maslow's emphasis on examining positive aspects of human behavior and the importance of understanding human nature. Maslow's hierarchy of needs emphasizes the importance of fulfilling basic needs and moving towards self-actualization. Similarly, Positive Psychology focuses on promoting positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment, which are all important factors in achieving self-actualization and leading a fulfilling life.
Both Positive Psychology and Maslow's theories recognize the importance of understanding human nature and behavior from a holistic perspective. By considering positive aspects of human behavior, Positive Psychology and Maslow's emphasis on self-actualization provide a more comprehensive understanding of individuals and the potential for growth and flourishing.
6. Interpersonal Relationships
Interpersonal relationships are of utmost importance and have a profound impact on both personal and professional spheres. These relationships play a key role in shaping our well-being and overall happiness. From friendships to romantic relationships to professional connections, they bring meaning and fulfillment to our lives.
Friendships are characterized by mutual trust, respect, and companionship. They provide emotional support, a sense of belonging, and the opportunity to share experiences and create lasting memories. Romantic relationships, on the other hand, involve a deeper level of intimacy and often entail love, affection, and commitment. They serve as a source of emotional support, companionship, and personal growth.
In the professional realm, relationships are predominantly based on shared goals and mutual benefits. These connections help build networks, create opportunities for career advancement, foster teamwork, and enhance job satisfaction. Professional relationships require effective communication, as it is crucial for collaboration, problem-solving, and maintaining a healthy working environment.
Effective communication, trust, and empathy are all integral components for cultivating healthy and fulfilling interpersonal relationships. Good communication facilitates understanding, resolves conflicts, and strengthens connections. Trust is the foundation upon which strong relationships are built, instilling a sense of security and reliability. Empathy is essential for understanding and connecting with others, demonstrating care and support.
Conceptual Links to Maslow's Theory
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs has created ripples through various fields of psychology and beyond, influencing numerous theories and models. Here are some of the most prominent conceptual links and inferences:
- Ultimate Goal: Maslow's notion of self-actualization aligns with the ultimate goal in various psychological and sociological theories, where the end-point is achieving one's fullest potential.
- Self-actualization Needs: This top tier of Maslow's hierarchy has informed numerous models in journals like the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, emphasizing the importance of intrinsic motivation and personal growth.
- Intrinsic Motivation: Maslow’s concept of self-actualization needs can be seen as a form of intrinsic motivation, which is also a core concept in Herzbberg's Two Factor Theory, illustrating the importance of job satisfaction and employee motivation in the workplace.
- Motivational Priorities: Maslow's hierarchy can be conceptually linked with the Theory of Change and Jungian Psychology, both of which consider the evolution of personal and collective unconscious as drivers for change in individuals and societies.
- Classic Hierarchy and Motivational Hierarchies: The structure of Maslow's hierarchy has informed the understanding of motivational hierarchies in fields like Social Psychology Bulletin, suggesting that our actions are often a pursuit to fulfill these hierarchical needs.
- Theory of Change: Maslow’s hierarchy can be seen as a map for personal development, resonating with the Theory of Change which is fundamental in understanding and facilitating organizational change.
- Jungian Psychology: The self-actualization aspect of Maslow's theory echoes Carl Jung's idea of individuation, where the ultimate goal is to integrate the conscious and unconscious parts of the self.
- Cognitive Dissonance: Introduced by Leon Festinger, this concept from social psychology intersects with Maslow's theory, as individuals strive for consistency between their beliefs and behaviors, which is essential for fulfilling higher-level psychological needs.
- Bruner: Jerome Bruner's constructivist theory emphasizes how learning is an active process, which aligns with Maslow’s idea that fulfilling cognitive needs is a step towards self-actualization.
These conceptual links illustrate Maslow’s profound influence across various psychological domains, showing that his hierarchy of needs continues to provide a valuable framework for understanding human motivation and behavior.
Further reading on Maslow's Theory
These studies offer a range of perspectives on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from its theoretical underpinnings to practical applications in various contexts.
- A multi-dimensional measure of Maslow's hierarchy of needs by D. E. Williams & M. Page (1989). This study presents the Maslowian Assessment Survey, which assesses different aspects of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and their relationship with psychological traits like depression, neuroticism, social recognition, self-acceptance, autonomy, and desirability.
- Exploring the Relationship between Money Attitudes and Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs by M. Oleson (2004). This paper examines how money attitudes related to evaluation and anxiety are connected to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, providing insights valuable for counseling and financial education.
- An empirical test of Maslow's theory of need hierarchy using hologeistic comparison by statistical sampling by J. Davis-Sharts (1986). This research supports Maslow's hierarchy of needs through empirical evidence, especially regarding physiological and security behaviors before sleep, providing a worldwide perspective on the theory.
- Relevansi Teori Hierarki Kebutuhan Abraham Maslow Terhadap Motivasi Kerja Anggota Organisasi Penyuluhan Agama Islam by M. Bagas (2020). This study relates Maslow's hierarchy of needs to the work motivation of Islamic counseling organization members, emphasizing the fulfillment of physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization needs for motivation.
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory Combined with Subjective Well-being to Explore the Influencing Factors and Promotion Strategies by Songlan Peng (2020). This paper combines Maslow's hierarchy of needs with the concept of subjective well-being, suggesting that understanding and promoting individual needs can significantly enhance overall well-being.