Thorndikes Theory

June 8, 2023

Discover the groundbreaking theory of Thorndike, and how it changed the way we understand learning and intelligence.

Course Enquiry

Introduction to Thorndikes Theory

Edward Thorndike was a prominent American psychologist who contributed significantly to the development of behavioral psychology. His influential work on learning and behavior set the foundation for modern educational psychology and animal behavior research.

Thorndike's theory of learning emphasized the significance of reinforcement and punishment in shaping behavior, which has since been widely applied in various fields of psychology.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Thorndike's theory, highlighting its key features and the impact it has had on modern psychology. This article will also delve into the history of Edward Thorndike, examining his early life and education, professional career, and significant contributions to behavioral psychology.

By exploring the life and work of Edward Thorndike, readers will gain a better understanding of the foundational principles and concepts of behavioral psychology.

 

Key Takeaways

  • Thorndike's theory of learning emphasized the significance of reinforcement and punishment in shaping behavior, stating that behavior that is followed by a positive consequence is more likely to be repeated, while behavior that is followed by a negative consequence is less likely to be repeated.
  • Thorndike's theory has had a significant impact on modern psychology, particularly in the areas of behaviorism and cognitive psychology, and the principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to his theory are still widely used in behavior modification and therapy.
  • Thorndike's theory has been instrumental in the development of applied behavior analysis (ABA), a therapy that is widely used to treat a variety of conditions, including autism and developmental disabilities.
  • Thorndike's experimental work with animals, particularly his development of the puzzle box, provided insights into the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior and helped to lay the groundwork for the development of operant conditioning theory.

 

Who was Edward Thorndike?

Edward Thorndike, an American psychologist and pioneer in the field of educational psychology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is widely recognized for his groundbreaking research on the learning process, despite potential critiques of his methods or conclusions.

Thorndike's research focused on the connection between stimulus and response, which is commonly known as the S-R theory of psychology. In his research, he conducted experiments on animals, particularly cats and dogs, to study their behavior and learning process. Thorndike's goal was to understand how animals learn and how their learning can be applied to humans, particularly in the field of education.

Thorndike's theory of learning, also known as the law of effect, states that behavior that is followed by a positive consequence is more likely to be repeated, while behavior that is followed by a negative consequence is less likely to be repeated. This theory is based on the idea that learning is a gradual process that occurs through trial and error.

Thorndike believed that learning occurs when there is a connection between the stimulus and the response, and that this connection becomes stronger with repetition.

Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike

 

Overview of Thorndike's Theory

One of the key concepts in the study of learning is the overview of the principles proposed by Thorndike. Thorndike's theory of learning is based on the principle that learning occurs through the association between a response and a stimulus.

According to Thorndike, learning is the result of the strengthening of the connections between a stimulus and a response.

The more a response is reinforced, the stronger the connection between the response and the stimulus becomes. This reinforcement can be positive or negative, and it can increase or decrease the likelihood of a particular response in the future.

Some of the key principles of Thorndike's theory include:

  1. Law of effect: Responses that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated, while responses that are followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.
  2. Law of readiness: Learning is most effective when the learner is ready to learn and is motivated to do so.
  3. Law of exercise: Learning occurs through repetition and practice.
  4. Law of multiple responses: There are often multiple responses to a given stimulus, and learning occurs through the strengthening of the connections between the appropriate response and the stimulus.

Thorndike's theory has had a significant impact on modern psychology, particularly in the areas of behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

It has influenced the development of other theories of learning, such as Skinner's operant conditioning and Bandura's social learning theory.

Additionally, the principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to Thorndike's theory are still widely used in behavior modification and therapy.

Impact of Thorndike's Theory on Modern Psychology

The principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to Thorndike's theory continue to have a significant impact on behavior modification and therapy in modern psychology.

Thorndike's learning theory, based on the idea that behavior is shaped by its consequences, paved the way for the development of behavioral psychology. Today, behaviorism is still a popular approach in psychology, and its principles are used to explain and modify a wide range of behaviors.

In addition to its influence on behaviorism, Thorndike's theory has been instrumental in the development of applied behavior analysis (ABA), a therapy that is widely used to treat a variety of conditions, including autism and developmental disabilities.

ABA relies on the principles of reinforcement and punishment to modify behavior, and it has been found to be effective in promoting positive behavior change.

Overall, Thorndike's theory has had a lasting impact on modern psychology, and its relevance can be seen in the continued use of its principles in both research and practice.

With the impact of Thorndike's theory on modern psychology, it is important to delve into the history of Edward Thorndike to gain a deeper understanding of his work and the context in which he developed his ideas.

 

Connectionism
Connectionism

History of Edward Thorndike

Understanding the historical background of Edward Thorndike's life and work can provide valuable insights into the development of modern psychology and the evolution of behavioral theories.

Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who was born in Massachusetts in 1874. He received his undergraduate degree from Wesleyan University and his doctoral degree from Harvard University.

He was primarily interested in studying animal behavior and developed his principles of learning theory based on his experiments with cats. Thorndike's research focused on the role of stimulus and the laws of learning.

He believed that behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it, and that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated. Thorndike's work laid the foundation for behaviorism, which is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior in the study of psychology.

His contributions to psychology have had a lasting impact on the field, and continue to be studied and applied today. This understanding of Edward Thorndike and his work leads us to examine his early life and education, professional career, and achievements.

 

Early Life and Education Professional Career of Thorndike

Edward Thorndike's life began to bloom with his education at Wesleyan University and Harvard University, where he studied philosophy and psychology.

He later earned a PhD in psychology from Columbia University, where he was influenced by James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey. Thorndike's early life and education provided him with a strong foundation for his future career as a psychologist.

Thorndike's professional career spanned over three decades and was marked by numerous achievements. He was one of the most prominent psychologists of his time and his work laid the foundation for the development of behaviorism. Some of his achievements include:

  • Developing the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated in the future.
  • Conducting extensive research on learning and intelligence, including his famous puzzle box experiments with cats.
  • Writing numerous books and articles on psychology, including 'Animal Intelligence' and 'The Elements of Psychology'.

Thorndike's contributions to behavioral psychology and his experimental work with animals have had a lasting impact on the field of psychology.

 

Biography of Thorndike
Biography of Thorndike

Contributions to Behavioral Psychology Experimental Work with Animals

Through his experimental work with animals, Edward Thorndike made significant contributions to the development of behavioral psychology.

He is best known for his work on the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated, while behaviors that are followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.

Thorndike conducted numerous experiments with cats, dogs, and chicks to test this theory, and his findings provided important insights into the mechanisms of learning and behavior. Thorndike's work on animal behavior also led him to develop the concept of the puzzle box, which he used to study how animals learn to solve problems through trial and error.

In these experiments, animals were placed in a box with a simple latch or other mechanism that they had to figure out how to open in order to escape. Thorndike found that animals gradually learned through trial and error how to manipulate the latch, and that this learning process was influenced by the consequences of their actions.

These experiments provided important insights into the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior and helped to lay the groundwork for the development of operant conditioning theory.

 

Thorndikes Theory
Thorndikes Theory

Some Criticisms and Limitations of his Theory

Overemphasis on stimulus-response associations

One criticism of Thorndike's theory is that it tends to oversimplify learning processes by focusing primarily on stimulus-response associations. Critics argue that human learning involves more complex cognitive processes, such as reasoning, problem-solving, and the influence of internal mental states.

While Thorndike acknowledged the role of cognition to some extent, his theory predominantly focused on the external observable behaviors and their consequences.

 

Neglect of cognitive processes in learning

Related to the previous point, Thorndike's theory downplays the significance of cognitive processes in learning. The theory does not sufficiently address how individuals actively engage in mental processes, such as attention, memory, and information processing, which contribute to learning and problem-solving.

Cognitive factors have been recognized as important in understanding how individuals acquire knowledge, make connections, and apply information in various contexts.

 

Limitations of animal experiments for human behavior

Another criticism is the limited generalizability of Thorndike's findings from animal experiments to human behavior.

While Thorndike's research primarily involved experiments with animals, particularly cats in puzzle box experiments, it is important to consider the inherent differences between animal and human behavior.

Human learning and behavior are influenced by a broader range of factors, including social, cultural, and cognitive aspects that may not be fully captured by studying animals in controlled laboratory settings.

 

Context-dependent nature of behavior

Thorndike's theory does not extensively address the contextual factors that influence behavior. Human behavior is highly contextual, influenced by situational variables, social norms, and individual differences.

The theory's focus on the association between stimuli and responses may not adequately account for the complex interplay of factors that shape behavior in different situations. Understanding behavior requires considering the broader context and the dynamic nature of human interactions.

 

Evolving understanding of learning and behavior

Since Thorndike's time, the field of psychology has evolved, and new theories and perspectives have emerged. Contemporary approaches, such as cognitive psychology, social learning theory, and constructivism, offer more comprehensive explanations of learning and behavior.

These perspectives consider cognitive processes, social interactions, and individual differences, providing a broader understanding of the complexities involved in learning.

While Thorndike's theory made significant contributions to the field of psychology and laid the groundwork for subsequent research, it is essential to recognize its limitations and consider the advancements in our understanding of learning and behavior that have emerged since its formulation.

Incorporating multiple perspectives and approaches allows for a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of human learning and behavior.

Thorndikes Early Book
Thorndikes Early Book

 

Frequently Asked Questions about Thorndikes Theory

How does Thorndike's theory relate to other theories in psychology?

Thorndike's theory of learning is one of several that explains how people acquire new knowledge and skills. By focusing on the relationship between behavior and consequences, it complements other psychological theories that explore cognition, motivation, and social factors.

What criticisms have been made against Thorndike's theory?

Critics argue that Thorndike's theory oversimplifies learning, neglects cognitive processes, and fails to account for the role of motivation. Some also argue that his experiments lacked ecological validity.

Did Thorndike's theory have any practical applications outside of psychology?

Thorndike's theory had practical applications in education, particularly in the development of programmed instruction and behavior modification techniques. It also influenced the development of animal training methods and the study of animal behavior.

How did Thorndike's personal beliefs and values influence his theory?

Thorndike's personal beliefs and values are not well-documented in the literature, thus it is difficult to assess their influence on his theory. However, his theory is grounded in empirical research and the principles of behaviorism.

What was the reaction to Thorndike's theory when it was first introduced?

Thorndike's theory of learning was initially met with skepticism and criticism from the scientific community but eventually gained acceptance due to its empirical approach and emphasis on observable behavior.

 

Wrap Up

In our journey through the history of psychology, we've found Edward Lee Thorndike at its crossroads, creating an intersection between comparative psychology and the psychology of education. His instrumental learning theories hold pivotal importance in the process of learning, marking the advent of a scientific approach towards understanding education.

Delving deeper into the essence of the learning situation, Thorndike's law of effect implies that responses followed by satisfaction will be repeated in similar situations. It advocates that an effective learning environment should incentivise correct responses, fostering a reinforcement-based pedagogy.

His tenure at Teachers College marked a significant shift towards empiricism in psychology, challenging countless psychologists to reevaluate the foundations of their understanding.

The implications of Thorndike's work resonate even today, inspiring educators to create classrooms where success encourages repetition, a sentiment echoed in modern theories of learning and educational psychology.

His legacy not only permeates the walls of countless classrooms around the globe but also molds the psyche of psychologists venturing into the vast field of comparative psychology.

As we draw this exploration to a close, let's ruminate on our understanding with a few questions.

1) How has Thorndike's theory influenced the dynamics of your classroom?

2) Can you identify instances in your teaching career where you've applied the law of effect, even unconsciously?

3) Are there strategies in your current teaching approach that could be enhanced by applying the principles of instrumental learning?

4) Reflecting on these questions, how might you further optimise your learning environment?

5) Could Thorndike's theory be applied in more innovative ways to encourage the correct response in your unique classroom context?

6) Lastly, how does your understanding of Edward L. Thorndike's theory fit into the broader narrative of comparative psychology and the history of psychology at large?

As educators, we must continually ask ourselves these questions, stretching our perspectives to innovate within our own learning situations.

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Psychology

Introduction to Thorndikes Theory

Edward Thorndike was a prominent American psychologist who contributed significantly to the development of behavioral psychology. His influential work on learning and behavior set the foundation for modern educational psychology and animal behavior research.

Thorndike's theory of learning emphasized the significance of reinforcement and punishment in shaping behavior, which has since been widely applied in various fields of psychology.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Thorndike's theory, highlighting its key features and the impact it has had on modern psychology. This article will also delve into the history of Edward Thorndike, examining his early life and education, professional career, and significant contributions to behavioral psychology.

By exploring the life and work of Edward Thorndike, readers will gain a better understanding of the foundational principles and concepts of behavioral psychology.

 

Key Takeaways

  • Thorndike's theory of learning emphasized the significance of reinforcement and punishment in shaping behavior, stating that behavior that is followed by a positive consequence is more likely to be repeated, while behavior that is followed by a negative consequence is less likely to be repeated.
  • Thorndike's theory has had a significant impact on modern psychology, particularly in the areas of behaviorism and cognitive psychology, and the principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to his theory are still widely used in behavior modification and therapy.
  • Thorndike's theory has been instrumental in the development of applied behavior analysis (ABA), a therapy that is widely used to treat a variety of conditions, including autism and developmental disabilities.
  • Thorndike's experimental work with animals, particularly his development of the puzzle box, provided insights into the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior and helped to lay the groundwork for the development of operant conditioning theory.

 

Who was Edward Thorndike?

Edward Thorndike, an American psychologist and pioneer in the field of educational psychology during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, is widely recognized for his groundbreaking research on the learning process, despite potential critiques of his methods or conclusions.

Thorndike's research focused on the connection between stimulus and response, which is commonly known as the S-R theory of psychology. In his research, he conducted experiments on animals, particularly cats and dogs, to study their behavior and learning process. Thorndike's goal was to understand how animals learn and how their learning can be applied to humans, particularly in the field of education.

Thorndike's theory of learning, also known as the law of effect, states that behavior that is followed by a positive consequence is more likely to be repeated, while behavior that is followed by a negative consequence is less likely to be repeated. This theory is based on the idea that learning is a gradual process that occurs through trial and error.

Thorndike believed that learning occurs when there is a connection between the stimulus and the response, and that this connection becomes stronger with repetition.

Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike

 

Overview of Thorndike's Theory

One of the key concepts in the study of learning is the overview of the principles proposed by Thorndike. Thorndike's theory of learning is based on the principle that learning occurs through the association between a response and a stimulus.

According to Thorndike, learning is the result of the strengthening of the connections between a stimulus and a response.

The more a response is reinforced, the stronger the connection between the response and the stimulus becomes. This reinforcement can be positive or negative, and it can increase or decrease the likelihood of a particular response in the future.

Some of the key principles of Thorndike's theory include:

  1. Law of effect: Responses that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated, while responses that are followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.
  2. Law of readiness: Learning is most effective when the learner is ready to learn and is motivated to do so.
  3. Law of exercise: Learning occurs through repetition and practice.
  4. Law of multiple responses: There are often multiple responses to a given stimulus, and learning occurs through the strengthening of the connections between the appropriate response and the stimulus.

Thorndike's theory has had a significant impact on modern psychology, particularly in the areas of behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

It has influenced the development of other theories of learning, such as Skinner's operant conditioning and Bandura's social learning theory.

Additionally, the principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to Thorndike's theory are still widely used in behavior modification and therapy.

Impact of Thorndike's Theory on Modern Psychology

The principles of reinforcement and punishment that are central to Thorndike's theory continue to have a significant impact on behavior modification and therapy in modern psychology.

Thorndike's learning theory, based on the idea that behavior is shaped by its consequences, paved the way for the development of behavioral psychology. Today, behaviorism is still a popular approach in psychology, and its principles are used to explain and modify a wide range of behaviors.

In addition to its influence on behaviorism, Thorndike's theory has been instrumental in the development of applied behavior analysis (ABA), a therapy that is widely used to treat a variety of conditions, including autism and developmental disabilities.

ABA relies on the principles of reinforcement and punishment to modify behavior, and it has been found to be effective in promoting positive behavior change.

Overall, Thorndike's theory has had a lasting impact on modern psychology, and its relevance can be seen in the continued use of its principles in both research and practice.

With the impact of Thorndike's theory on modern psychology, it is important to delve into the history of Edward Thorndike to gain a deeper understanding of his work and the context in which he developed his ideas.

 

Connectionism
Connectionism

History of Edward Thorndike

Understanding the historical background of Edward Thorndike's life and work can provide valuable insights into the development of modern psychology and the evolution of behavioral theories.

Edward Thorndike was an American psychologist who was born in Massachusetts in 1874. He received his undergraduate degree from Wesleyan University and his doctoral degree from Harvard University.

He was primarily interested in studying animal behavior and developed his principles of learning theory based on his experiments with cats. Thorndike's research focused on the role of stimulus and the laws of learning.

He believed that behavior is shaped by the consequences that follow it, and that behavior that is rewarded is likely to be repeated. Thorndike's work laid the foundation for behaviorism, which is a theoretical framework that emphasizes the importance of observable behavior in the study of psychology.

His contributions to psychology have had a lasting impact on the field, and continue to be studied and applied today. This understanding of Edward Thorndike and his work leads us to examine his early life and education, professional career, and achievements.

 

Early Life and Education Professional Career of Thorndike

Edward Thorndike's life began to bloom with his education at Wesleyan University and Harvard University, where he studied philosophy and psychology.

He later earned a PhD in psychology from Columbia University, where he was influenced by James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey. Thorndike's early life and education provided him with a strong foundation for his future career as a psychologist.

Thorndike's professional career spanned over three decades and was marked by numerous achievements. He was one of the most prominent psychologists of his time and his work laid the foundation for the development of behaviorism. Some of his achievements include:

  • Developing the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated in the future.
  • Conducting extensive research on learning and intelligence, including his famous puzzle box experiments with cats.
  • Writing numerous books and articles on psychology, including 'Animal Intelligence' and 'The Elements of Psychology'.

Thorndike's contributions to behavioral psychology and his experimental work with animals have had a lasting impact on the field of psychology.

 

Biography of Thorndike
Biography of Thorndike

Contributions to Behavioral Psychology Experimental Work with Animals

Through his experimental work with animals, Edward Thorndike made significant contributions to the development of behavioral psychology.

He is best known for his work on the law of effect, which states that behaviors that are followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated, while behaviors that are followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.

Thorndike conducted numerous experiments with cats, dogs, and chicks to test this theory, and his findings provided important insights into the mechanisms of learning and behavior. Thorndike's work on animal behavior also led him to develop the concept of the puzzle box, which he used to study how animals learn to solve problems through trial and error.

In these experiments, animals were placed in a box with a simple latch or other mechanism that they had to figure out how to open in order to escape. Thorndike found that animals gradually learned through trial and error how to manipulate the latch, and that this learning process was influenced by the consequences of their actions.

These experiments provided important insights into the role of reinforcement in learning and behavior and helped to lay the groundwork for the development of operant conditioning theory.

 

Thorndikes Theory
Thorndikes Theory

Some Criticisms and Limitations of his Theory

Overemphasis on stimulus-response associations

One criticism of Thorndike's theory is that it tends to oversimplify learning processes by focusing primarily on stimulus-response associations. Critics argue that human learning involves more complex cognitive processes, such as reasoning, problem-solving, and the influence of internal mental states.

While Thorndike acknowledged the role of cognition to some extent, his theory predominantly focused on the external observable behaviors and their consequences.

 

Neglect of cognitive processes in learning

Related to the previous point, Thorndike's theory downplays the significance of cognitive processes in learning. The theory does not sufficiently address how individuals actively engage in mental processes, such as attention, memory, and information processing, which contribute to learning and problem-solving.

Cognitive factors have been recognized as important in understanding how individuals acquire knowledge, make connections, and apply information in various contexts.

 

Limitations of animal experiments for human behavior

Another criticism is the limited generalizability of Thorndike's findings from animal experiments to human behavior.

While Thorndike's research primarily involved experiments with animals, particularly cats in puzzle box experiments, it is important to consider the inherent differences between animal and human behavior.

Human learning and behavior are influenced by a broader range of factors, including social, cultural, and cognitive aspects that may not be fully captured by studying animals in controlled laboratory settings.

 

Context-dependent nature of behavior

Thorndike's theory does not extensively address the contextual factors that influence behavior. Human behavior is highly contextual, influenced by situational variables, social norms, and individual differences.

The theory's focus on the association between stimuli and responses may not adequately account for the complex interplay of factors that shape behavior in different situations. Understanding behavior requires considering the broader context and the dynamic nature of human interactions.

 

Evolving understanding of learning and behavior

Since Thorndike's time, the field of psychology has evolved, and new theories and perspectives have emerged. Contemporary approaches, such as cognitive psychology, social learning theory, and constructivism, offer more comprehensive explanations of learning and behavior.

These perspectives consider cognitive processes, social interactions, and individual differences, providing a broader understanding of the complexities involved in learning.

While Thorndike's theory made significant contributions to the field of psychology and laid the groundwork for subsequent research, it is essential to recognize its limitations and consider the advancements in our understanding of learning and behavior that have emerged since its formulation.

Incorporating multiple perspectives and approaches allows for a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of human learning and behavior.

Thorndikes Early Book
Thorndikes Early Book

 

Frequently Asked Questions about Thorndikes Theory

How does Thorndike's theory relate to other theories in psychology?

Thorndike's theory of learning is one of several that explains how people acquire new knowledge and skills. By focusing on the relationship between behavior and consequences, it complements other psychological theories that explore cognition, motivation, and social factors.

What criticisms have been made against Thorndike's theory?

Critics argue that Thorndike's theory oversimplifies learning, neglects cognitive processes, and fails to account for the role of motivation. Some also argue that his experiments lacked ecological validity.

Did Thorndike's theory have any practical applications outside of psychology?

Thorndike's theory had practical applications in education, particularly in the development of programmed instruction and behavior modification techniques. It also influenced the development of animal training methods and the study of animal behavior.

How did Thorndike's personal beliefs and values influence his theory?

Thorndike's personal beliefs and values are not well-documented in the literature, thus it is difficult to assess their influence on his theory. However, his theory is grounded in empirical research and the principles of behaviorism.

What was the reaction to Thorndike's theory when it was first introduced?

Thorndike's theory of learning was initially met with skepticism and criticism from the scientific community but eventually gained acceptance due to its empirical approach and emphasis on observable behavior.

 

Wrap Up

In our journey through the history of psychology, we've found Edward Lee Thorndike at its crossroads, creating an intersection between comparative psychology and the psychology of education. His instrumental learning theories hold pivotal importance in the process of learning, marking the advent of a scientific approach towards understanding education.

Delving deeper into the essence of the learning situation, Thorndike's law of effect implies that responses followed by satisfaction will be repeated in similar situations. It advocates that an effective learning environment should incentivise correct responses, fostering a reinforcement-based pedagogy.

His tenure at Teachers College marked a significant shift towards empiricism in psychology, challenging countless psychologists to reevaluate the foundations of their understanding.

The implications of Thorndike's work resonate even today, inspiring educators to create classrooms where success encourages repetition, a sentiment echoed in modern theories of learning and educational psychology.

His legacy not only permeates the walls of countless classrooms around the globe but also molds the psyche of psychologists venturing into the vast field of comparative psychology.

As we draw this exploration to a close, let's ruminate on our understanding with a few questions.

1) How has Thorndike's theory influenced the dynamics of your classroom?

2) Can you identify instances in your teaching career where you've applied the law of effect, even unconsciously?

3) Are there strategies in your current teaching approach that could be enhanced by applying the principles of instrumental learning?

4) Reflecting on these questions, how might you further optimise your learning environment?

5) Could Thorndike's theory be applied in more innovative ways to encourage the correct response in your unique classroom context?

6) Lastly, how does your understanding of Edward L. Thorndike's theory fit into the broader narrative of comparative psychology and the history of psychology at large?

As educators, we must continually ask ourselves these questions, stretching our perspectives to innovate within our own learning situations.