Marking Strategies

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July 9, 2024

Explore effective and time-saving teacher marking strategies to enhance student outcomes and streamline the feedback process in primary and secondary schools.

Course Enquiry

Understanding Effective Feedback

Effective feedback plays a crucial role in enhancing student learning and progress. It helps students understand the strengths and weaknesses of their work, providing them with valuable insights on how to improve. The Department of Education Review highlighted three main principles of effective marking and feedback.

Firstly, feedback should be clear and specific. Vague comments such as "good job" or "needs improvement" are not helpful for students. Instead, feedback should highlight specific areas where the student has excelled or needs further development, along with suggestions for improvement.

Secondly, feedback should be timely. To be effective, feedback should be given as close to the learning as possible. This allows students to make immediate connections between their performance and the feedback given, helping them to better understand and apply the suggestions.

Lastly, feedback should be actionable. It should provide students with clear steps or strategies to take in order to improve. Giving specific examples and providing guidance on how to implement changes can empower students to actively engage in their learning and take ownership of their progress.

Carless's research emphasized the importance of various factors in effective feedback. These factors include student engagement, teacher-student relationships, and the use of technology. By considering these factors, educators can enhance the effectiveness of their feedback and support students in achieving their full potential.

 

7 Effective (and Time-Saving) Marking Strategies

Feedback is widely recognized as the most effective pathway to enhance learning and improve pupil outcomes. To achieve substantial progress, it is imperative to employ a variety of feedback strategies in different formats. Here are seven effective and practical methods for teachers:

1. Whole-Class Feedback

Collect a range of books from your class and note key strengths and common areas for improvement. Record these observations and provide collective feedback to the class, emphasizing positives and areas needing improvement. This strategy saves time and ensures consistent feedback (TeacherToolkit, 2022).

2. Live Marking

During lessons, integrate clear points where students must get their work checked before moving on. This real-time feedback allows for immediate corrections and adjustments, enhancing learning while reducing the marking workload (Richard James Rogers, 2022).

3. Peer and Self-Assessment

Involve students in the marking process by having them assess their own and each other’s work. This not only saves time but also helps students develop critical evaluative skills and understand their learning progress (Teach Past the Potholes, 2022).

4. Selective Marking

Focus on marking specific tasks or sections of work in detail rather than marking everything. Use methods like the "Yellow Box" to highlight areas for detailed feedback, making the process more efficient and impactful (TeacherToolkit, 2022).

5. Use of Technology

Implement digital tools like Google Forms, MyiMaths, and Kahoot! for quizzes and assignments. These platforms provide instant feedback and automated assessment, significantly reducing the time teachers spend on marking (Richard James Rogers, 2022).

6. Coded Marking

Develop a system of coded marks to give quick, consistent feedback. Train students to understand and respond to these codes, which can be letters, numbers, or symbols, reducing the need for lengthy written comments (Optimus Education, 2022).

7. Observational Assessment

Use observations and anecdotal notes during class activities as part of the assessment process. This method captures real-time learning and provides valuable insights without the need for extensive written feedback later (Teach Past the Potholes, 2022).

By incorporating these strategies, teachers can provide effective feedback while managing their workload efficiently. This approach not only enhances pupil outcomes but also allows teachers to focus more on instructional planning and student engagement.

 

Teacher Workload and the Marking Process

The impact of teacher workload on the marking process cannot be underestimated. Teachers are often overwhelmed with heavy workload implications, leaving them with limited time and energy to focus on their own professional development. This, in turn, hinders their ability to stay updated with current educational practices and methods that could enhance their teaching skills.

Unfortunately, the current marking policy may not align with the aim of developing student autonomy and self-reliance. The excessive focus on extensive marking places the burden on the teachers to provide detailed feedback for every assignment, leaving little room for students to reflect and take ownership of their own learning. This consequently undermines the goal of developing student autonomy and self-reliance, as they become reliant on constant teacher guidance and feedback.

The challenges and frustrations faced by teachers due to excessive marking demands are numerous. Not only does it consume a significant amount of their time, but it also requires immense mental effort and attention to detail. The pressure to provide timely and detailed feedback to each student can lead to burnout and diminish the quality of feedback being provided. Additionally, the repetitive nature of marking can also lead to feelings of monotony and reduce the overall enjoyment of teaching.

To manage marking in a more time-efficient and meaningful way, teachers can implement various strategies. One such strategy is to prioritize quality over quantity, focusing on providing meaningful feedback rather than extensive comments on every assignment. Utilizing technology, such as automated grading tools or peer assessment, can also help alleviate the marking workload. Furthermore, implementing a system of self-assessment and reflection for students can encourage them to take more responsibility for their own learning, reducing the need for excessive teacher marking.

 

Student feedback flowchart

More Methods to Streamline the Marking Process 

Let's explore some more efficient marking strategies that provide effective feedback while saving time. These methods support both primary and secondary teachers in delivering regular, meaningful assessments, enhancing student outcomes through smart and practical marking techniques.

1. 100 Words

Find out what learners think they have learned about a specific area of subject knowledge. Gauge their understanding to inform what you do next. This method allows teachers to provide regular feedback efficiently, ensuring individual students' learning is effectively monitored in both primary and secondary settings.

2. Anonymous Assessment

Learners assess an anonymous piece of work containing deliberate mistakes against given success criteria. This smart marking strategy helps students develop critical evaluation skills while saving teachers time on providing detailed individual feedback.

3. Anonymous Assessment Jigsaw

Working first on their own and then in groups, learners grade pieces of anonymous work and explain the grades to new partners. This method encourages collaborative learning and peer feedback, promoting better understanding and outcomes through feedback.

4. Capturing Progress

The teacher matches activities to learning objectives. Learners assess and record progress as they complete planned activities. This approach allows for continuous, real-time assessment, enabling secondary teachers to provide targeted feedback during lessons.

5. Clarifying Learning Objectives

Using coloured discs and/or peer explanations, teachers check to ensure that learners have understood the learning objectives. This interactive method ensures clarity and helps students focus on their goals, leading to improved academic performance.

6. Coded Feedback

Teachers create simple codes to use as part of formative feedback. These codes require specific actions by the learner to improve their work. This method is efficient, providing clear, actionable feedback while reducing the time teachers spend on marking.

7. Comments to Independent Work

Teachers write feedback on strips of paper. In groups, learners have to work out which feedback is theirs. This strategy promotes active learning and helps students engage more deeply with the feedback provided.

8. Visual Maps for Formative Teacher Assessment

Teachers give feedback to learners, telling them specifically how to improve their visual demonstration of their understanding. This targeted approach ensures that feedback is clear and actionable, enhancing learning outcomes and saving time for teachers.

 

Marking strategies

Embracing Whole-Class Marking

Whole-class marking, inspired by the practices at Michaela Community School, is an efficient feedback method that shifts the responsibility of learning onto students and saves valuable teacher time. This approach has gained widespread acceptance due to its effectiveness and practicality.

What is Whole-Class Marking?

Whole-class marking moves away from writing individual comments in each student’s book, a practice often seen as time-consuming and ineffective. Instead, teachers read through a set of books, make strategic notes, and then provide feedback to the entire class at once. This method emphasizes making students responsible for their own learning, encouraging them to actively engage with the feedback provided.

 

Reducing teacher workload with effective marking

Implications for Teachers

Efficiency and Time Management: Whole-class marking significantly reduces the time spent on marking. Teachers can plan to read around 30 books in 15 minutes, allowing them to review the work of each student once or twice a week. This efficient use of time means teachers can focus more on planning and delivering high-quality lessons.

Strategic Note-Taking: As teachers read through the books, they make notes on recurring issues such as spelling and grammar mistakes, identify students who need individual follow-ups, and highlight shared successes and common areas of misunderstanding. These notes form the basis of the whole-class feedback.

Timely Feedback: Providing feedback as close to the time of writing as possible, ideally in the next lesson, ensures that students can remember and reflect on the original task. Addressing common errors like spelling and grammar mistakes promptly allows for immediate correction and reinforcement.

Positive Reinforcement: Celebrating successes and showcasing exemplary work during feedback sessions can boost student morale. Using tools like visualizers to highlight what makes certain pieces of work outstanding helps students understand and aim for higher standards in their own work.

Interactive Feedback Sessions: Whole-class marking also facilitates instant intervention during lessons. Teachers can circulate with a notepad during silent writing times and provide mini-plenaries to give feedback halfway through the task. This real-time feedback helps keep students on track and addresses issues as they arise.

Differentiation and Inclusivity: While whole-class feedback is delivered collectively, the strategic notes allow teachers to provide differentiated support where needed. For example, students with literacy difficulties might receive more verbal feedback, indicated by a ‘verbal feedback’ stamp, ensuring they understand the guidance.

Empowering Students: Encouraging students to self-correct and improve their work based on the feedback fosters independence and self-regulation. This method aligns with formative assessment principles, supporting all students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, in improving their academic skills.

By integrating this method into their marking routine, teachers can provide meaningful and timely feedback, leading to improved learning outcomes for all students.

 

Verbal whole class feedback

Delivering Timely Feedback

Timely feedback plays a crucial role in enhancing pupil outcomes in the classroom. By providing prompt and constructive feedback, teachers can support students in their learning journey and help them improve their performance. The benefits of effective marking and feedback are well-documented, with research showing that timely and specific feedback can increase student engagement, motivation, and achievement (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

Implementing timely feedback in the classroom can take various forms. One effective method is through verbal feedback. By engaging in immediate discussions with students, teachers can highlight areas of improvement, provide praise, or offer suggestions for further development. Verbal feedback allows for a dynamic interaction that allows students to receive feedback in real-time, enabling them to adjust their understanding or approach accordingly.

 

Marking schedules

Incorporating Success Criteria into Marking Strategies

Incorporating success criteria into marking strategies can be immensely beneficial in providing clear expectations for both teachers and students. By clearly defining what constitutes success in a given task or assignment, success criteria pave the way for consistent and fair assessment practices.

One effective method is the use of assessment sheets that include success criteria as questions. These sheets not only outline the specific criteria on which students will be evaluated, but they also provide a guide for teachers to follow while marking. This ensures that marking is focused and comprehensive, leaving no room for ambiguity or subjectivity.

In addition to assessment sheets, the implementation of question prompts and glossary sheets further supports the incorporation of success criteria. Question prompts encourage students to think critically about the task at hand, prompting them to consider the specific requirements and how they can demonstrate their understanding and skills. Glossary sheets, on the other hand, can help clarify any unfamiliar terms or concepts, enabling students to engage with the task more effectively.

Incorporating success criteria into marking strategies not only benefits teachers but also yields significant advantages for students. With clear expectations, students can better understand what is required of them, resulting in improved structure and quality of their work. Moreover, this approach reduces the time spent on repetitive comments, as teachers are able to quickly identify and address specific areas where students may need further guidance or improvement.

 

Oral feedback

Key Papers on the Efficacy of Marking Strategies in the Classroom

The reviewed studies highlight various marking strategies, including oral feedback, peer marking, and formative and summative assessments, and their impact on student outcomes. These strategies emphasize the importance of timely and reflective feedback, engagement through modified evaluation methods, and the reliability of peer assessments. Implementing these strategies can significantly enhance learning experiences and student performance in primary and secondary education.

1. Oral Feedback in Classroom SLA

This study conducts a meta-analysis to investigate the pedagogical effectiveness of oral corrective feedback (CF) in classroom settings. It finds that CF significantly and durably impacts target language development, with younger learners benefiting more from CF. The study highlights the importance of different types of CF and their effectiveness in various instructional contexts (Lyster & Saito, 2010).

2. The Benefits of Students Learning about Critical Evaluation Rather than Being Summatively Judged

This paper explores how student reflection on assessment procedures can enhance the learning experience. It emphasizes the importance of teaching students the differences between summative and formative assessments, advocating for conceptual marking and the use of written and verbal feedback as tools for student reflection and self-assessment (Smyth, 2004).

3. Exams and Student Feedback: An Experiment in Marking Efficiencies

This paper discusses an experiment in evaluation and grading approaches in an engineering course. It explores the use of modified evaluation strategies, such as online assignments, minimal reporting requirements, and brief weekly quizzes, to provide timely feedback, improve student engagement, and reduce marking efforts. The results indicate significant improvements in student engagement and reduced instructor marking effort without negatively affecting student grade performance (Lynch & Kostiuk, 2018).

4. Evaluation of Marking of Peer Marking in Oral Presentation

This study investigates the reliability of peer marking in summative assessments of oral presentations. It finds that peer marking, when assessed against a benchmark, can improve the reliability of peer assessments. The study highlights the potential of peer marking as a useful tool in formative and summative assessments (Steverding et al., 2016).

5. Formative and Summative Assessment of Science in English Primary Schools: Evidence from the Primary Science Quality Mark

This paper examines the approaches taken by English primary schools to assess pupils' learning in science. It finds a wide range of formative and summative assessment strategies, including talk-based strategies and tests or tracking grids. The study emphasizes the need for a consistent approach to using formative and summative assessments to improve student outcomes (Earle, 2014).

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Classroom Practice

Understanding Effective Feedback

Effective feedback plays a crucial role in enhancing student learning and progress. It helps students understand the strengths and weaknesses of their work, providing them with valuable insights on how to improve. The Department of Education Review highlighted three main principles of effective marking and feedback.

Firstly, feedback should be clear and specific. Vague comments such as "good job" or "needs improvement" are not helpful for students. Instead, feedback should highlight specific areas where the student has excelled or needs further development, along with suggestions for improvement.

Secondly, feedback should be timely. To be effective, feedback should be given as close to the learning as possible. This allows students to make immediate connections between their performance and the feedback given, helping them to better understand and apply the suggestions.

Lastly, feedback should be actionable. It should provide students with clear steps or strategies to take in order to improve. Giving specific examples and providing guidance on how to implement changes can empower students to actively engage in their learning and take ownership of their progress.

Carless's research emphasized the importance of various factors in effective feedback. These factors include student engagement, teacher-student relationships, and the use of technology. By considering these factors, educators can enhance the effectiveness of their feedback and support students in achieving their full potential.

 

7 Effective (and Time-Saving) Marking Strategies

Feedback is widely recognized as the most effective pathway to enhance learning and improve pupil outcomes. To achieve substantial progress, it is imperative to employ a variety of feedback strategies in different formats. Here are seven effective and practical methods for teachers:

1. Whole-Class Feedback

Collect a range of books from your class and note key strengths and common areas for improvement. Record these observations and provide collective feedback to the class, emphasizing positives and areas needing improvement. This strategy saves time and ensures consistent feedback (TeacherToolkit, 2022).

2. Live Marking

During lessons, integrate clear points where students must get their work checked before moving on. This real-time feedback allows for immediate corrections and adjustments, enhancing learning while reducing the marking workload (Richard James Rogers, 2022).

3. Peer and Self-Assessment

Involve students in the marking process by having them assess their own and each other’s work. This not only saves time but also helps students develop critical evaluative skills and understand their learning progress (Teach Past the Potholes, 2022).

4. Selective Marking

Focus on marking specific tasks or sections of work in detail rather than marking everything. Use methods like the "Yellow Box" to highlight areas for detailed feedback, making the process more efficient and impactful (TeacherToolkit, 2022).

5. Use of Technology

Implement digital tools like Google Forms, MyiMaths, and Kahoot! for quizzes and assignments. These platforms provide instant feedback and automated assessment, significantly reducing the time teachers spend on marking (Richard James Rogers, 2022).

6. Coded Marking

Develop a system of coded marks to give quick, consistent feedback. Train students to understand and respond to these codes, which can be letters, numbers, or symbols, reducing the need for lengthy written comments (Optimus Education, 2022).

7. Observational Assessment

Use observations and anecdotal notes during class activities as part of the assessment process. This method captures real-time learning and provides valuable insights without the need for extensive written feedback later (Teach Past the Potholes, 2022).

By incorporating these strategies, teachers can provide effective feedback while managing their workload efficiently. This approach not only enhances pupil outcomes but also allows teachers to focus more on instructional planning and student engagement.

 

Teacher Workload and the Marking Process

The impact of teacher workload on the marking process cannot be underestimated. Teachers are often overwhelmed with heavy workload implications, leaving them with limited time and energy to focus on their own professional development. This, in turn, hinders their ability to stay updated with current educational practices and methods that could enhance their teaching skills.

Unfortunately, the current marking policy may not align with the aim of developing student autonomy and self-reliance. The excessive focus on extensive marking places the burden on the teachers to provide detailed feedback for every assignment, leaving little room for students to reflect and take ownership of their own learning. This consequently undermines the goal of developing student autonomy and self-reliance, as they become reliant on constant teacher guidance and feedback.

The challenges and frustrations faced by teachers due to excessive marking demands are numerous. Not only does it consume a significant amount of their time, but it also requires immense mental effort and attention to detail. The pressure to provide timely and detailed feedback to each student can lead to burnout and diminish the quality of feedback being provided. Additionally, the repetitive nature of marking can also lead to feelings of monotony and reduce the overall enjoyment of teaching.

To manage marking in a more time-efficient and meaningful way, teachers can implement various strategies. One such strategy is to prioritize quality over quantity, focusing on providing meaningful feedback rather than extensive comments on every assignment. Utilizing technology, such as automated grading tools or peer assessment, can also help alleviate the marking workload. Furthermore, implementing a system of self-assessment and reflection for students can encourage them to take more responsibility for their own learning, reducing the need for excessive teacher marking.

 

Student feedback flowchart

More Methods to Streamline the Marking Process 

Let's explore some more efficient marking strategies that provide effective feedback while saving time. These methods support both primary and secondary teachers in delivering regular, meaningful assessments, enhancing student outcomes through smart and practical marking techniques.

1. 100 Words

Find out what learners think they have learned about a specific area of subject knowledge. Gauge their understanding to inform what you do next. This method allows teachers to provide regular feedback efficiently, ensuring individual students' learning is effectively monitored in both primary and secondary settings.

2. Anonymous Assessment

Learners assess an anonymous piece of work containing deliberate mistakes against given success criteria. This smart marking strategy helps students develop critical evaluation skills while saving teachers time on providing detailed individual feedback.

3. Anonymous Assessment Jigsaw

Working first on their own and then in groups, learners grade pieces of anonymous work and explain the grades to new partners. This method encourages collaborative learning and peer feedback, promoting better understanding and outcomes through feedback.

4. Capturing Progress

The teacher matches activities to learning objectives. Learners assess and record progress as they complete planned activities. This approach allows for continuous, real-time assessment, enabling secondary teachers to provide targeted feedback during lessons.

5. Clarifying Learning Objectives

Using coloured discs and/or peer explanations, teachers check to ensure that learners have understood the learning objectives. This interactive method ensures clarity and helps students focus on their goals, leading to improved academic performance.

6. Coded Feedback

Teachers create simple codes to use as part of formative feedback. These codes require specific actions by the learner to improve their work. This method is efficient, providing clear, actionable feedback while reducing the time teachers spend on marking.

7. Comments to Independent Work

Teachers write feedback on strips of paper. In groups, learners have to work out which feedback is theirs. This strategy promotes active learning and helps students engage more deeply with the feedback provided.

8. Visual Maps for Formative Teacher Assessment

Teachers give feedback to learners, telling them specifically how to improve their visual demonstration of their understanding. This targeted approach ensures that feedback is clear and actionable, enhancing learning outcomes and saving time for teachers.

 

Marking strategies

Embracing Whole-Class Marking

Whole-class marking, inspired by the practices at Michaela Community School, is an efficient feedback method that shifts the responsibility of learning onto students and saves valuable teacher time. This approach has gained widespread acceptance due to its effectiveness and practicality.

What is Whole-Class Marking?

Whole-class marking moves away from writing individual comments in each student’s book, a practice often seen as time-consuming and ineffective. Instead, teachers read through a set of books, make strategic notes, and then provide feedback to the entire class at once. This method emphasizes making students responsible for their own learning, encouraging them to actively engage with the feedback provided.

 

Reducing teacher workload with effective marking

Implications for Teachers

Efficiency and Time Management: Whole-class marking significantly reduces the time spent on marking. Teachers can plan to read around 30 books in 15 minutes, allowing them to review the work of each student once or twice a week. This efficient use of time means teachers can focus more on planning and delivering high-quality lessons.

Strategic Note-Taking: As teachers read through the books, they make notes on recurring issues such as spelling and grammar mistakes, identify students who need individual follow-ups, and highlight shared successes and common areas of misunderstanding. These notes form the basis of the whole-class feedback.

Timely Feedback: Providing feedback as close to the time of writing as possible, ideally in the next lesson, ensures that students can remember and reflect on the original task. Addressing common errors like spelling and grammar mistakes promptly allows for immediate correction and reinforcement.

Positive Reinforcement: Celebrating successes and showcasing exemplary work during feedback sessions can boost student morale. Using tools like visualizers to highlight what makes certain pieces of work outstanding helps students understand and aim for higher standards in their own work.

Interactive Feedback Sessions: Whole-class marking also facilitates instant intervention during lessons. Teachers can circulate with a notepad during silent writing times and provide mini-plenaries to give feedback halfway through the task. This real-time feedback helps keep students on track and addresses issues as they arise.

Differentiation and Inclusivity: While whole-class feedback is delivered collectively, the strategic notes allow teachers to provide differentiated support where needed. For example, students with literacy difficulties might receive more verbal feedback, indicated by a ‘verbal feedback’ stamp, ensuring they understand the guidance.

Empowering Students: Encouraging students to self-correct and improve their work based on the feedback fosters independence and self-regulation. This method aligns with formative assessment principles, supporting all students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, in improving their academic skills.

By integrating this method into their marking routine, teachers can provide meaningful and timely feedback, leading to improved learning outcomes for all students.

 

Verbal whole class feedback

Delivering Timely Feedback

Timely feedback plays a crucial role in enhancing pupil outcomes in the classroom. By providing prompt and constructive feedback, teachers can support students in their learning journey and help them improve their performance. The benefits of effective marking and feedback are well-documented, with research showing that timely and specific feedback can increase student engagement, motivation, and achievement (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

Implementing timely feedback in the classroom can take various forms. One effective method is through verbal feedback. By engaging in immediate discussions with students, teachers can highlight areas of improvement, provide praise, or offer suggestions for further development. Verbal feedback allows for a dynamic interaction that allows students to receive feedback in real-time, enabling them to adjust their understanding or approach accordingly.

 

Marking schedules

Incorporating Success Criteria into Marking Strategies

Incorporating success criteria into marking strategies can be immensely beneficial in providing clear expectations for both teachers and students. By clearly defining what constitutes success in a given task or assignment, success criteria pave the way for consistent and fair assessment practices.

One effective method is the use of assessment sheets that include success criteria as questions. These sheets not only outline the specific criteria on which students will be evaluated, but they also provide a guide for teachers to follow while marking. This ensures that marking is focused and comprehensive, leaving no room for ambiguity or subjectivity.

In addition to assessment sheets, the implementation of question prompts and glossary sheets further supports the incorporation of success criteria. Question prompts encourage students to think critically about the task at hand, prompting them to consider the specific requirements and how they can demonstrate their understanding and skills. Glossary sheets, on the other hand, can help clarify any unfamiliar terms or concepts, enabling students to engage with the task more effectively.

Incorporating success criteria into marking strategies not only benefits teachers but also yields significant advantages for students. With clear expectations, students can better understand what is required of them, resulting in improved structure and quality of their work. Moreover, this approach reduces the time spent on repetitive comments, as teachers are able to quickly identify and address specific areas where students may need further guidance or improvement.

 

Oral feedback

Key Papers on the Efficacy of Marking Strategies in the Classroom

The reviewed studies highlight various marking strategies, including oral feedback, peer marking, and formative and summative assessments, and their impact on student outcomes. These strategies emphasize the importance of timely and reflective feedback, engagement through modified evaluation methods, and the reliability of peer assessments. Implementing these strategies can significantly enhance learning experiences and student performance in primary and secondary education.

1. Oral Feedback in Classroom SLA

This study conducts a meta-analysis to investigate the pedagogical effectiveness of oral corrective feedback (CF) in classroom settings. It finds that CF significantly and durably impacts target language development, with younger learners benefiting more from CF. The study highlights the importance of different types of CF and their effectiveness in various instructional contexts (Lyster & Saito, 2010).

2. The Benefits of Students Learning about Critical Evaluation Rather than Being Summatively Judged

This paper explores how student reflection on assessment procedures can enhance the learning experience. It emphasizes the importance of teaching students the differences between summative and formative assessments, advocating for conceptual marking and the use of written and verbal feedback as tools for student reflection and self-assessment (Smyth, 2004).

3. Exams and Student Feedback: An Experiment in Marking Efficiencies

This paper discusses an experiment in evaluation and grading approaches in an engineering course. It explores the use of modified evaluation strategies, such as online assignments, minimal reporting requirements, and brief weekly quizzes, to provide timely feedback, improve student engagement, and reduce marking efforts. The results indicate significant improvements in student engagement and reduced instructor marking effort without negatively affecting student grade performance (Lynch & Kostiuk, 2018).

4. Evaluation of Marking of Peer Marking in Oral Presentation

This study investigates the reliability of peer marking in summative assessments of oral presentations. It finds that peer marking, when assessed against a benchmark, can improve the reliability of peer assessments. The study highlights the potential of peer marking as a useful tool in formative and summative assessments (Steverding et al., 2016).

5. Formative and Summative Assessment of Science in English Primary Schools: Evidence from the Primary Science Quality Mark

This paper examines the approaches taken by English primary schools to assess pupils' learning in science. It finds a wide range of formative and summative assessment strategies, including talk-based strategies and tests or tracking grids. The study emphasizes the need for a consistent approach to using formative and summative assessments to improve student outcomes (Earle, 2014).

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