Self-Regulation of Learning

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June 20, 2023

Explore techniques for boosting self-regulation in learning. Empower students to take charge of their educational journey for enhanced outcomes.

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Main, P (2023, June 20). Self-Regulation of Learning. Retrieved from https://www.structural-learning.com/post/self-regulation-of-learning

Understanding the Concept of Self-Regulated Learning

Self-regulated learning is a cornerstone of modern educational theory, rooted in the cognitive theory of learning. It refers to the process where learners actively engage in their own learning process, employing a set of self-regulated learning strategies to monitor and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment.

For instance, a student employing metacognitive strategies might plan their study schedule ahead of a major exam, monitor their understanding of the material as they study, and adjust their strategies if they find their comprehension lacking. This active engagement in the learning task promotes a positive emotion towards learning, which in turn, enhances learning outcomes.

As expert educator John Hattie once said, "Self-regulated learning is the goal of schooling – it is that students will develop an internal dialogue to monitor, evaluate, and optimize their learning." Indeed, research supports this view, with one study showing that students who employed self-regulated learning strategies had significantly better academic performance. For example, a student who sets specific study goals, maintains a regular study schedule, and actively seeks help when needed is likely to perform better academically.

 

The Role of Goal Setting in Self-Regulation

Goal setting plays a pivotal role in self-regulation, serving as the compass that guides learners' efforts and strategies. From a cognitive perspective, goal setting is a metacognitive strategy that involves defining what one hopes to achieve in a given academic task, and then planning the steps to reach that goal.

This process is integral to self-regulation strategies, as it provides a clear direction for learners' efforts, helping them stay focused and motivated.

Intrinsic motivation is a key factor in effective goal setting. When learners are intrinsically motivated, they set goals that are personally meaningful and challenging, which can lead to higher engagement and persistence in academic tasks.

This approach to motivation aligns with the principles of positive psychology, which emphasizes the importance of personal growth, self-determination, and the pursuit of meaningful goals.

The role of goal orientation is also crucial in this context. Learners with a mastery goal orientation focus on developing new skills and improving their understanding, which can lead to the use of more effective self-regulation strategies.

On the other hand, learners with a performance goal orientation focus on demonstrating their competence and outperforming others, which can sometimes lead to the use of less effective strategies, such as surface learning or avoidance of challenging tasks.

In essence, goal setting is not just about defining what one wants to achieve. It's also about identifying the steps to reach that goal, staying motivated along the way, and adjusting one's strategies as needed. As such, it's a dynamic and ongoing process that lies at the heart of self-regulated learning.

For further reading, consider the study "The Relationships Between Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Massive Open Online Courses" which provides a deeper understanding of the role of goal setting in self-regulated learning.

Strategies for Enhancing Self-Regulation in Learning

In the pursuit of enhancing self-regulation in learning, several strategies have been identified that can significantly improve academic performance. Here are some of the key strategies:

  1. Adopting Metacognitive Strategies: Metacognitive strategies involve thinking about one's own thinking. This includes planning, monitoring, and evaluating one's own learning processes. For example, students can set specific goals for their learning, monitor their progress towards these goals, and adjust their strategies as needed.
  2. Promoting Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is a powerful driver of self-regulation. When students are intrinsically motivated, they are more likely to engage in academic tasks, persist in the face of challenges, and achieve better learning outcomes.
  3. Applying Theoretical Perspectives: Theoretical perspectives from fields such as Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, and Positive Psychology can provide valuable insights into how to enhance self-regulation in learning.
  4. Implementing Cognitive Strategies: Cognitive strategies, such as rehearsal, elaboration, and organization, can help students process information more deeply and retain it more effectively.
  5. Encouraging Motivated Strategies: Motivated strategies, such as self-efficacy beliefs and achievement goal orientations, can influence students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, thereby enhancing their academic self-regulation.
  6. Fostering Academic Self-Regulation: Academic self-regulation involves students taking an active role in their own learning process. This includes setting learning goals, selecting and implementing appropriate strategies, and monitoring and adjusting their learning as needed.
  7. Promoting Self-Regulated Learning: Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is a process where learners actively manage their own learning experiences. This involves setting learning goals, selecting and implementing appropriate strategies, and monitoring and adjusting their learning as needed.

Self Regulation Learning Environment
Self Regulation Learning Environment

 

The Impact of Self-Regulated Learning on Academic Performance

The influence of self-regulated learning on academic performance is profound and multifaceted. Self-regulated learners, equipped with metacognitive strategies, are often better prepared to handle academic tasks, leading to improved performance. This is not merely a correlation, but a cause-and-effect relationship, as demonstrated by numerous studies in the Journal of Educational Psychology.

One of the key elements of self-regulated learning is the role of goal orientation. Learners who set clear, achievable goals for themselves are more likely to stay motivated and persist in their academic tasks. This is particularly true when these goals are intrinsically motivated, meaning they are driven by the learner's personal interest or desire for mastery, rather than external rewards or pressures.

From the perspective of positive psychology, this intrinsic motivation can lead to positive emotions, such as satisfaction and enjoyment, which further enhance the learner's motivation and performance. This positive feedback loop, where motivation leads to positive emotion, which in turn enhances motivation, is a key mechanism through which self-regulated learning improves academic performance.

Moreover, self-regulated learning is not just about individual effort. It also involves the social context, including the support and feedback from teachers and peers. For instance, a study published in the Journal of Educational Psychology found that students who received feedback that was focused on their learning strategies, rather than just their performance, showed greater improvement in their self-regulation skills and academic performance.

In conclusion, self-regulated learning, with its emphasis on goal setting, metacognitive strategies, and intrinsic motivation, can have a significant impact on academic performance. By fostering self-regulated learning, educators can help students not only improve their grades but also develop lifelong learning skills.

Self Regulation of Learning
Self Regulation of Learning

Self-Monitoring: A Key Component of Self-Regulated Learning

  • Embracing Cognitive Load Theory: Cognitive Load Theory posits that effective learning occurs when cognitive resources are optimally managed. Self-monitoring, in this context, involves learners assessing their cognitive load and adjusting their learning strategies accordingly to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. This can be particularly beneficial in digital learning environments, where design factors can induce varying levels of cognitive load.
  • Aligning with Self-Determination Theory: Self-Determination Theory emphasizes the role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in fostering intrinsic motivation. Self-monitoring can enhance these elements by giving learners greater control over their learning process, providing them with feedback on their progress, and helping them connect their learning to their personal goals and interests.
  • Leveraging Positive Psychology: Positive psychology focuses on promoting positive emotions, personal strengths, and life satisfaction. Self-monitoring can contribute to these outcomes by helping learners recognize their progress, celebrate their successes, and maintain a positive attitude towards their learning.
  • Incorporating Developmental Psychology Perspectives: Developmental psychology provides insights into how self-monitoring skills develop over time and how they can be nurtured at different stages of a learner's life. This can inform the design of age-appropriate self-monitoring strategies and interventions.
  • Promoting Academic Motivation: Self-monitoring can enhance academic motivation by helping learners see the link between their efforts and their academic performance. This can motivate them to invest more effort in their learning and persist in the face of challenges.

Educational Theoretical Links  

The concept of self-regulation of learning is deeply rooted in the theoretical frameworks of several key educational theorists. It is a multidimensional construct that encompasses cognitive, behavioral, and motivational components.

The cognitive aspect of self-regulation, often referred to as cognitive strategies, is closely linked to the work of Jerome Bruner and Jean Piaget. Bruner's theory of 'Discovery Learning' and Piaget's 'Stages of Cognitive Development' both emphasize the active role of the learner in constructing knowledge, a fundamental principle of self-regulation.

The behavioral component of self-regulation, which involves the control of one's actions to achieve desired goals, can be traced back to the theories of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. Thorndike's 'Law of Effect' and Pavlov's 'Classical Conditioning' both highlight the role of consequences in shaping behavior, a concept that is central to the self-regulation of learning.

The motivational aspect of self-regulation, often referred to as motivated strategies, is closely tied to the work of Maria Montessori and Abraham Maslow. Montessori's emphasis on intrinsic motivation and Maslow's concept of 'Self-Actualisation' both underscore the importance of personal interest and self-fulfillment in learning, key elements of self-regulation.

The work of Lev Vygotsky also provides a valuable lens through which to view self-regulation. His theory of 'Social Constructivism' emphasizes the social context of learning and the importance of interaction, collaboration, and dialogue in the construction of knowledge. This aligns with the view of self-regulation as a socially mediated process.

Finally, the work of B. J. Zimmerman, a leading researcher in the field of self-regulated learning, provides a comprehensive framework for understanding this complex construct. His model of self-regulation, outlined in the Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance, integrates these cognitive, behavioral, and motivational components into a coherent whole, providing a valuable guide for educators seeking to promote self-regulation in their students.

 

Cycle of Self Regulated Learning
Cycle of Self Regulated Learning

Challenges and Solutions in Implementing Self-Regulated Learning

In the realm of education, the concept of self-regulation has emerged as a pivotal cornerstone for effective learning. It is a skill that not only fosters independence but also cultivates a sense of responsibility towards one's own educational journey. A study by Zimmerman (2002) revealed that students who exhibit high levels of self-regulation are more likely to succeed academically, a statistic that underscores the importance of this skill.

As educators, our role extends beyond the confines of the classroom. We are tasked with nurturing these skills in our students, whether they are part of large school communities, homeschoolers, or in the early years of their education. The application of self-regulation strategies should be a school-wide initiative, with teachers across all grades incorporating these techniques into their teaching practices.

This ensures a consistent approach to learning, fostering an environment where students are encouraged to take charge of their own learning process.

The power of self-regulation is not limited to the classroom. It extends to homework tasks, where students are often left to their own devices. By teaching them how to set goals, devise strategies, and monitor their progress, we are equipping them with the tools to succeed outside the structured environment of the school.

For homeschoolers, self-regulation takes on an even greater significance. As the lines between 'school' and 'home' blur, the ability to manage one's own learning becomes crucial. As the renowned educational psychologist, Dr. Barry Zimmerman, once said, "Self-regulation is not a mental ability or an academic performance skill; rather it is the self-directive process by which learners transform their mental abilities into academic skills."

In the early years, the seeds of self-regulation are sown. Through play-based learning and guided instruction, young learners can begin to understand the value of setting goals, persisting through challenges, and celebrating their successes.

In conclusion, the promotion of self-regulation across all facets of learning is not just beneficial, but essential. It is a skill that transcends academic boundaries, preparing our students for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. As teachers, it is our responsibility to guide our students on this journey, fostering a lifelong love for learning along the way.

Further Reading on Self-Regulation

Here are five articles relating to self-regulation of learning with a focus on emotional self-regulation, self-regulatory processes, autonomous motivation, self-determined motivation, and Self-Regulation Theory:

  1. Self-determination in recreational exercise: Associations with lapse and post-lapse emotions by Stephen L. Murphy & I. Taylor (2019). This study investigates how different types of motivation predict lapse in exercise behavior and emotional responses to lapse, including guilt, anxiety, and relief, within the framework of Self-Determination Theory.
  2. Freedom to feel: A self‐determination theory account of emotion regulation by Moti Benita (2020). This review explores how Self-Determination Theory (SDT) can provide insights into emotion regulation by highlighting the concept of autonomy and its role in psychological growth and development of a coherent sense of self
  3. Choice and Ego-Depletion: The Moderating Role of Autonomy by Arlen C. Moller, E. Deci, & R. Ryan (2006). This research supports the hypothesis that autonomous choice does not result in ego-depletion, unlike controlled choice, and emphasizes the importance of autonomy in self-regulation
  4. Self-Regulation and Consistency between Attitudes, Traits, and Behaviors by R. Koestner, Frank J. Bernieri, & M. Zuckerman (1992). This study indicates that individuals who regulate their behavior in an autonomous manner display behavior more consistent with their self-reported attitudes and traits than individuals who regulate their behavior based on external or introjected controls. 
  5. Associations Among Perceived Autonomy Support, Forms of Self-Regulation, and Persistence: A Prospective Study by L. Pelletier, M. Fortier, R. Vallerand, & N. Brière (2001). This study explores how perceived autonomy support from coaches influences athletes' motivation, forms of regulation, and persistence over time, highlighting the positive effects of autonomy support on self-determined motivation and persistence.

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Classroom Practice

Understanding the Concept of Self-Regulated Learning

Self-regulated learning is a cornerstone of modern educational theory, rooted in the cognitive theory of learning. It refers to the process where learners actively engage in their own learning process, employing a set of self-regulated learning strategies to monitor and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment.

For instance, a student employing metacognitive strategies might plan their study schedule ahead of a major exam, monitor their understanding of the material as they study, and adjust their strategies if they find their comprehension lacking. This active engagement in the learning task promotes a positive emotion towards learning, which in turn, enhances learning outcomes.

As expert educator John Hattie once said, "Self-regulated learning is the goal of schooling – it is that students will develop an internal dialogue to monitor, evaluate, and optimize their learning." Indeed, research supports this view, with one study showing that students who employed self-regulated learning strategies had significantly better academic performance. For example, a student who sets specific study goals, maintains a regular study schedule, and actively seeks help when needed is likely to perform better academically.

 

The Role of Goal Setting in Self-Regulation

Goal setting plays a pivotal role in self-regulation, serving as the compass that guides learners' efforts and strategies. From a cognitive perspective, goal setting is a metacognitive strategy that involves defining what one hopes to achieve in a given academic task, and then planning the steps to reach that goal.

This process is integral to self-regulation strategies, as it provides a clear direction for learners' efforts, helping them stay focused and motivated.

Intrinsic motivation is a key factor in effective goal setting. When learners are intrinsically motivated, they set goals that are personally meaningful and challenging, which can lead to higher engagement and persistence in academic tasks.

This approach to motivation aligns with the principles of positive psychology, which emphasizes the importance of personal growth, self-determination, and the pursuit of meaningful goals.

The role of goal orientation is also crucial in this context. Learners with a mastery goal orientation focus on developing new skills and improving their understanding, which can lead to the use of more effective self-regulation strategies.

On the other hand, learners with a performance goal orientation focus on demonstrating their competence and outperforming others, which can sometimes lead to the use of less effective strategies, such as surface learning or avoidance of challenging tasks.

In essence, goal setting is not just about defining what one wants to achieve. It's also about identifying the steps to reach that goal, staying motivated along the way, and adjusting one's strategies as needed. As such, it's a dynamic and ongoing process that lies at the heart of self-regulated learning.

For further reading, consider the study "The Relationships Between Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Massive Open Online Courses" which provides a deeper understanding of the role of goal setting in self-regulated learning.

Strategies for Enhancing Self-Regulation in Learning

In the pursuit of enhancing self-regulation in learning, several strategies have been identified that can significantly improve academic performance. Here are some of the key strategies:

  1. Adopting Metacognitive Strategies: Metacognitive strategies involve thinking about one's own thinking. This includes planning, monitoring, and evaluating one's own learning processes. For example, students can set specific goals for their learning, monitor their progress towards these goals, and adjust their strategies as needed.
  2. Promoting Intrinsic Motivation: Intrinsic motivation is a powerful driver of self-regulation. When students are intrinsically motivated, they are more likely to engage in academic tasks, persist in the face of challenges, and achieve better learning outcomes.
  3. Applying Theoretical Perspectives: Theoretical perspectives from fields such as Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, and Positive Psychology can provide valuable insights into how to enhance self-regulation in learning.
  4. Implementing Cognitive Strategies: Cognitive strategies, such as rehearsal, elaboration, and organization, can help students process information more deeply and retain it more effectively.
  5. Encouraging Motivated Strategies: Motivated strategies, such as self-efficacy beliefs and achievement goal orientations, can influence students' use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, thereby enhancing their academic self-regulation.
  6. Fostering Academic Self-Regulation: Academic self-regulation involves students taking an active role in their own learning process. This includes setting learning goals, selecting and implementing appropriate strategies, and monitoring and adjusting their learning as needed.
  7. Promoting Self-Regulated Learning: Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is a process where learners actively manage their own learning experiences. This involves setting learning goals, selecting and implementing appropriate strategies, and monitoring and adjusting their learning as needed.

Self Regulation Learning Environment
Self Regulation Learning Environment

 

The Impact of Self-Regulated Learning on Academic Performance

The influence of self-regulated learning on academic performance is profound and multifaceted. Self-regulated learners, equipped with metacognitive strategies, are often better prepared to handle academic tasks, leading to improved performance. This is not merely a correlation, but a cause-and-effect relationship, as demonstrated by numerous studies in the Journal of Educational Psychology.

One of the key elements of self-regulated learning is the role of goal orientation. Learners who set clear, achievable goals for themselves are more likely to stay motivated and persist in their academic tasks. This is particularly true when these goals are intrinsically motivated, meaning they are driven by the learner's personal interest or desire for mastery, rather than external rewards or pressures.

From the perspective of positive psychology, this intrinsic motivation can lead to positive emotions, such as satisfaction and enjoyment, which further enhance the learner's motivation and performance. This positive feedback loop, where motivation leads to positive emotion, which in turn enhances motivation, is a key mechanism through which self-regulated learning improves academic performance.

Moreover, self-regulated learning is not just about individual effort. It also involves the social context, including the support and feedback from teachers and peers. For instance, a study published in the Journal of Educational Psychology found that students who received feedback that was focused on their learning strategies, rather than just their performance, showed greater improvement in their self-regulation skills and academic performance.

In conclusion, self-regulated learning, with its emphasis on goal setting, metacognitive strategies, and intrinsic motivation, can have a significant impact on academic performance. By fostering self-regulated learning, educators can help students not only improve their grades but also develop lifelong learning skills.

Self Regulation of Learning
Self Regulation of Learning

Self-Monitoring: A Key Component of Self-Regulated Learning

  • Embracing Cognitive Load Theory: Cognitive Load Theory posits that effective learning occurs when cognitive resources are optimally managed. Self-monitoring, in this context, involves learners assessing their cognitive load and adjusting their learning strategies accordingly to maximize efficiency and effectiveness. This can be particularly beneficial in digital learning environments, where design factors can induce varying levels of cognitive load.
  • Aligning with Self-Determination Theory: Self-Determination Theory emphasizes the role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in fostering intrinsic motivation. Self-monitoring can enhance these elements by giving learners greater control over their learning process, providing them with feedback on their progress, and helping them connect their learning to their personal goals and interests.
  • Leveraging Positive Psychology: Positive psychology focuses on promoting positive emotions, personal strengths, and life satisfaction. Self-monitoring can contribute to these outcomes by helping learners recognize their progress, celebrate their successes, and maintain a positive attitude towards their learning.
  • Incorporating Developmental Psychology Perspectives: Developmental psychology provides insights into how self-monitoring skills develop over time and how they can be nurtured at different stages of a learner's life. This can inform the design of age-appropriate self-monitoring strategies and interventions.
  • Promoting Academic Motivation: Self-monitoring can enhance academic motivation by helping learners see the link between their efforts and their academic performance. This can motivate them to invest more effort in their learning and persist in the face of challenges.

Educational Theoretical Links  

The concept of self-regulation of learning is deeply rooted in the theoretical frameworks of several key educational theorists. It is a multidimensional construct that encompasses cognitive, behavioral, and motivational components.

The cognitive aspect of self-regulation, often referred to as cognitive strategies, is closely linked to the work of Jerome Bruner and Jean Piaget. Bruner's theory of 'Discovery Learning' and Piaget's 'Stages of Cognitive Development' both emphasize the active role of the learner in constructing knowledge, a fundamental principle of self-regulation.

The behavioral component of self-regulation, which involves the control of one's actions to achieve desired goals, can be traced back to the theories of Edward Thorndike and Ivan Pavlov. Thorndike's 'Law of Effect' and Pavlov's 'Classical Conditioning' both highlight the role of consequences in shaping behavior, a concept that is central to the self-regulation of learning.

The motivational aspect of self-regulation, often referred to as motivated strategies, is closely tied to the work of Maria Montessori and Abraham Maslow. Montessori's emphasis on intrinsic motivation and Maslow's concept of 'Self-Actualisation' both underscore the importance of personal interest and self-fulfillment in learning, key elements of self-regulation.

The work of Lev Vygotsky also provides a valuable lens through which to view self-regulation. His theory of 'Social Constructivism' emphasizes the social context of learning and the importance of interaction, collaboration, and dialogue in the construction of knowledge. This aligns with the view of self-regulation as a socially mediated process.

Finally, the work of B. J. Zimmerman, a leading researcher in the field of self-regulated learning, provides a comprehensive framework for understanding this complex construct. His model of self-regulation, outlined in the Handbook of Self-Regulation of Learning and Performance, integrates these cognitive, behavioral, and motivational components into a coherent whole, providing a valuable guide for educators seeking to promote self-regulation in their students.

 

Cycle of Self Regulated Learning
Cycle of Self Regulated Learning

Challenges and Solutions in Implementing Self-Regulated Learning

In the realm of education, the concept of self-regulation has emerged as a pivotal cornerstone for effective learning. It is a skill that not only fosters independence but also cultivates a sense of responsibility towards one's own educational journey. A study by Zimmerman (2002) revealed that students who exhibit high levels of self-regulation are more likely to succeed academically, a statistic that underscores the importance of this skill.

As educators, our role extends beyond the confines of the classroom. We are tasked with nurturing these skills in our students, whether they are part of large school communities, homeschoolers, or in the early years of their education. The application of self-regulation strategies should be a school-wide initiative, with teachers across all grades incorporating these techniques into their teaching practices.

This ensures a consistent approach to learning, fostering an environment where students are encouraged to take charge of their own learning process.

The power of self-regulation is not limited to the classroom. It extends to homework tasks, where students are often left to their own devices. By teaching them how to set goals, devise strategies, and monitor their progress, we are equipping them with the tools to succeed outside the structured environment of the school.

For homeschoolers, self-regulation takes on an even greater significance. As the lines between 'school' and 'home' blur, the ability to manage one's own learning becomes crucial. As the renowned educational psychologist, Dr. Barry Zimmerman, once said, "Self-regulation is not a mental ability or an academic performance skill; rather it is the self-directive process by which learners transform their mental abilities into academic skills."

In the early years, the seeds of self-regulation are sown. Through play-based learning and guided instruction, young learners can begin to understand the value of setting goals, persisting through challenges, and celebrating their successes.

In conclusion, the promotion of self-regulation across all facets of learning is not just beneficial, but essential. It is a skill that transcends academic boundaries, preparing our students for the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. As teachers, it is our responsibility to guide our students on this journey, fostering a lifelong love for learning along the way.

Further Reading on Self-Regulation

Here are five articles relating to self-regulation of learning with a focus on emotional self-regulation, self-regulatory processes, autonomous motivation, self-determined motivation, and Self-Regulation Theory:

  1. Self-determination in recreational exercise: Associations with lapse and post-lapse emotions by Stephen L. Murphy & I. Taylor (2019). This study investigates how different types of motivation predict lapse in exercise behavior and emotional responses to lapse, including guilt, anxiety, and relief, within the framework of Self-Determination Theory.
  2. Freedom to feel: A self‐determination theory account of emotion regulation by Moti Benita (2020). This review explores how Self-Determination Theory (SDT) can provide insights into emotion regulation by highlighting the concept of autonomy and its role in psychological growth and development of a coherent sense of self
  3. Choice and Ego-Depletion: The Moderating Role of Autonomy by Arlen C. Moller, E. Deci, & R. Ryan (2006). This research supports the hypothesis that autonomous choice does not result in ego-depletion, unlike controlled choice, and emphasizes the importance of autonomy in self-regulation
  4. Self-Regulation and Consistency between Attitudes, Traits, and Behaviors by R. Koestner, Frank J. Bernieri, & M. Zuckerman (1992). This study indicates that individuals who regulate their behavior in an autonomous manner display behavior more consistent with their self-reported attitudes and traits than individuals who regulate their behavior based on external or introjected controls. 
  5. Associations Among Perceived Autonomy Support, Forms of Self-Regulation, and Persistence: A Prospective Study by L. Pelletier, M. Fortier, R. Vallerand, & N. Brière (2001). This study explores how perceived autonomy support from coaches influences athletes' motivation, forms of regulation, and persistence over time, highlighting the positive effects of autonomy support on self-determined motivation and persistence.